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Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 3

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(The Points Only)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー


(Page 6)

THE TEXT

11. [ADJECTIVEs IN A LARGER SENSE]
(An ARTICLE,) ADJECTIVEs (and a NOUN) can be
added to a NOUN from the front.
(Note: We regard any word including an ARTICLE, a
PRONOUN, a NOUN etc. added to a NOUN as a kind
of ADJECTIVE i.e. an ADJECTIVAL)

e.g.
1) ARTICLE → NOUN:
a → pencil; an → egg; the → party; the → oil
(Note: Here, "→" means "modifies" or "is added to".)

2) ADJECTIVEs → NOUN:
fresh → air; poor → people; an interesting → story;
the last ten → pages; some good English → tea;
three lovely French → girls

3) NOUN → NOUN:
a desk → lamp; the silver wedding → anniversary;
most collage entrace exam(-ination) → rooms

12. [ADVERBs]
An ADVERB can be added to a VERB from the front or
behind depending upon the kind.
An ADVERB of CERTAINTY or FREQUENCY is usually
added from the front; but the other kinds from behind
i.e. from the ADVERBIAL POSITION in the WOFES
Chart.
Incidentally, the ADVERB of SENTENCE NEGATION i.e.
"not" is exceptionally added to the (first) AUXILIARY
VERB.

e.g.
ADVERB → VERB ← ADVERB
often → drink ← much; probably → swim ← here;
usually → brush (my teeth)← carefully;
never → study (← hard)← there
read (three → books)← yesterday;
(will ← not) → swim ← here
(Note: Here, "()←" is a grammatically bypassing
brackets.)

(Page 7)

13. [ADEGREEs: OUR COINAGE]
An ADEGREE can be added to an ADJECTIVE or an
ADVERB from the front.

Incidentally, an "ADEGREE" is our coinage which
means a word added to an adverb or an adjective to
show the DEGREE of the quantity or quality expressed
by them. (e.g. very, far, a little, enough, more, so, etc.)

e.g.
1) ADEGREE → ADJECTIVE
very → beautiful; a little → cold; far → better

2) ADEGREE → ADVERB
very → slowly; more → carefully; so → often

14. [AUXILIARY VERBs]
AUXILIARY VERBs can be added to a BARE VERB from
the front (though "-ing" or "-en" of a COMPOUND
AUXILIARY sticks to the bare verb from behind).

e.g.
1) SIMPLE AUXILIARY>→ BARE VERB:
will >→ be; can >→ swim; may >→ smoke;
must >→ study; would >→ fly; should >→ work;
could >→ speak; might >→ come
(Note: Here, ">→" means "helps or assists".)

2) COMPOUND AUXILIARY >→ BARE VERB:
is -ing >→ swim (⇒ is swimming); is to >→ teach;
is going to >→ cook; has -en >→ be (⇒ has been);
is -en >→ eat (⇒ is eaten)
(Note: The basic functions of "to", "-ing" and "-en"
(as bare verb connectives) are given in Item 16.)

The followings are not basic but advanced.

3) SIMPLE AUXILIARY and COMPOUND AUXILIARY
can be combined:
will >→ is VERB-ing ⇒ will be swim-ing ⇒
will be swimming;
must >→ is VERB-en ⇒ must be build-en ⇒
must be built

(Page 8)

4) COMPOUND AUXILIARIes can be combined:
has -en >→ is VERB-ing ⇒ has be-en swim-ing
⇒ has been swimming;

has -en >→ is VERB-en ⇒ has be-en build-en
⇒ has been built

5) From 3) and 4) :
will >→ have -en >→ be -ing >→ swim ⇒
will have been swimming;
must >→ have -en >→ be -en >→ build ⇒
must have been built




 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 4

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(The Points Only)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー


THE TEXT

15. [PREPOSITION: A NOUN SUBORDINATOR]
A NOUN SUBORDINATOR i.e. a PREPOSITION can
connect a NOUN or a NOMINAL to the preceding from
behind.

e.g.
is ← at + school ⇒ is at school
is ← on + the table ⇒ is on the table
plays ← in + the park ⇒ plays in the park
sorry ← for + the elderly man ⇒ sorry for the
elderly man
Ken ← at + school ⇒ Ken at school
the pen ← on + the table ⇒ the pen on the table
(Note: "is ← at + school" means "The preposition 'at'
connects (or subordinates) the noun 'school' to the
verb 'is'."

(The followings are advanced examples.)
is ← of + great importance ⇒ is of great importance
(⇒ is very important)
a woman ← of + little pride

16. [TO, -ING, -EN: VERB SUBORDINATORs]
A VERB SUBORDINATOR i.e. "to", "-ing" or "-en"
can connect a BARE VERB or a BARE VERBAL to the
preceding.
(But the third "-en" is conceptual and it actually is
sometimes "-en", often "-ed" and often makes the
verb one of a special form.)

(Page 9)

1) "To" is basically the connective of a verb to
express the action or state taking place later
than the preceding.

e.g.
went ← to + play ⇒ went to play
wanted ← to + drink ⇒ wanted to drink
was ← to + give them a speech ⇒ was to give them a
speech
a car ← to + sell tomorrow ⇒ a car to sell tomorrow
afraid ← to + talk to people from other countries
remember ← to + see him at his office at two o'clock.

However, when the preceding is an EMOTIVE or EVAL-
UATIVE adjective, this "to" often connects to it a
verb expressing the action or state earlier than the
feeling or evaluation.

e.g.
sad ← to + hear about the car accident
foolish ← to + waste so much money on such things

2) "-Ing" is basically the connective of a verb to
express the action or state simultaneous with or
earlier than the preceding.

e.g.
(She) is ← -ing + swim ⇒ (She) is swimming(.)
(I) was ← -ing + write an English grammar(.) ⇒
(I) was writing an English grammar(.)
(They) enjoyed ← -ing + talk about soccer(.) ⇒
(They) enjoyed talking about soccer(.)
The man ← -ing + wear a red tie (is Aiko's boss.)
⇒ The man wearing a red tie (is Aiko's boss.)
(He) remembered ← -ing + see her once at Tom's
birthday party(.)
⇒ (He) remembered seeing her once at Tom's birth-
day party(.)

(advanced examples whose explanations are omitted)
The man was riding a bicycle ← -ing + talk on his
cellphone ⇒ The man was riding a bicycle talking on
his cellphone.

Talk + -ing →(on his cellphone), the man was riding
a bicycle. ⇒

(Page 10)

Talking on his cellphone, the man was riding a bicycle.

3) "-En" is basically the connective of a verb making
its concept RESULTANT or PASSIVE.
However, the concept of a "verb-en" gets RESULTANT
only when (the verb is intransitive or) the immediately
preceding verb is "have".
Otherwise it becomes PASSIVE.

e.g.
3.1) RESULTANT
(Ken) has ← -en + buy a car(.) ⇒ (Ken) has bought
a car(.)
(Meaning: (Ken) owns a car now as the result of
buying it(.))

(Aiko) has ← -en + clean the room(.) ⇒ (Aiko) has
cleaned the room(.)
(Meaning: The room is clean now as the result of
(Aiko's) cleaning it.)

(Ken) has (just)← -en + leave the office ⇒ (Ken)
has just left the office(.)
(Meaning: (Ken) is not here in this office as the
result of (his) leaving it just now(.) (I am) Sorry.)

(Aiko) has ← -en + visit Nikko twice(.) ⇒ (Aiko) has
visited Nikko twice(.)
(Meaning: (Aiko) has some experience and knowledge
about Nikko now as the result of visiting it twice(.))

(We) have ← -en + live here for 10 years ⇒ (We)
have lived here for ten years(.)
(Meaning: (We) have 10 years' experience of living
here now as the result of starting it ten years ago(.))

(Yumi) is ← -en + go to Hokkaido ⇒ (Yumi) is gone
to Hokkaido(.)
(Meaning: (Yumi) is not here or is in Hokkaido now
as the result of (her) going there(.))

(Page 11)

3.2) PASSIVE
(This book) was ← -en + write here 10 years ago (by
my father.) ⇒ (This book) was written here (by my
father) 10 years ago.

the big diamond ring ← -en + steal from the jeweler's
⇒ the big diamond ring stolen from the jeweler's

(advanced examples whose explanations are omitted)
The ice cream ← -en + leave on the table (soon melt
down.)
⇒ The ice cream left on the table (soon melt down.)

Leave + -en →(on the table), the ice cream soon melt
down.
⇒ Left on the table, the ice cream soon melt down.





 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 5

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(The Points Only)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー

THE TEXT

(Page 11)

17. [SENTENCE SUBORDINATORs]
A SENTENCE SUBORDINATOR i.e. a SUBORDINATE
CONJUNCTION, a RELATIVE or a WH-WORD can con-
nect a (DECLARATIVE) SENTENCE to the preceding
from behind.

1) A SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION is a PERFECT
DECLARATIVE SENTENCE SUBORDINATOR to the
preceding sentence or its 「predicate (phrase)」.

e.g.
She 「was absent」 ← because + she had the flu.
You 「may go out」 ← when + you have finished your
homework.
He 「hasn't stopped smoking」 ← though + he had three
heart attacks this year.
I think ← that + we should pay the money back by
Friday.
We are not sure ← whether + she will come to our party
tomorrow.

An exception:
(Did you hear) the news ← that + all of them were safe
in the earthquake(?)
(⇒ a connection to the preceding noun)

2) A RELATIVE is basically an IMPERFECT DECLARA-
TIVE SENTENCE SUBORDINATOR to 「the preceding
noun (phrase)」.

e.g.
Have you met 「the American lady」 ← who + 「taught
me English」?
(⇒ "who" is a RELATIVE PRONOUN, and in 「the subor-
dinate sentence」, the SUBJECT "I" is missing.)

That is 「the lady」 ← who(m) + 「(I learnd English
from and) I taught Japanese」.
(⇒ "who(m)" is a RELATIVE PRONOUN, and in 「the
subordinate sentence」, (the prepositional OBJECT "her"
and) the indirect verb OBJECT "her" is missing.)

(Page 12)

The Japanese ← that + 「I taught her then」 was an
Osaka dialect.
(⇒ "that" is a RELATIVE PRONOUN, and in 「the subor-
dinate sentence」, the direct OBJECT "Japanese" is
missing.)

That is 「the apartment house」 ← where + 「she is going
to live from next month」.
(⇒ "where (= in which)" is a RELATIVE ADVERB, and
in 「the subordinate sentence」, the place ADVERB
"there" is missing.)

3) A WH-WORD as an IMPERFECT DECLARATIVE
SENTENCE SUBORDINATOR will be handled better
in 5) of Item 20. "SUBORDINATORs AS CHAGERs
OF PARTs OF SPEECH"

18. A COORDINATE CONJUNCTION i.e. "and", "or",
"but", etc. can connect any two words or chains of
words as far as they are the same kind.

e.g.
boys + and + girls; a pen + or + a pencil;
young + and + beautiful; exciting + but + dangerous;
slowly + but + steadily; sooner + or + later;
can + and + will; before + or + after;
「in the morning」 + and + 「in the evening」
「to leave now」+ or +「to stay a little longer」;
「listening to the radio」+ and +「watching television」;
「read the sentence」+ but +「failed to understand it」
「Will you tell it to him,」+ or +「shall I call him?」

19. ONE EXCEPTIONAL WORD ORDER OF ENGLISH
SENTENCES TO WOFES (CHART): What we call
"EXISTENCE INTRODUCING STRUCTURE" (abbr.
"EIS"), in which only two positions are different from
WOFES (CHART)

i.e.
(1) 「SUBJECT Nominal」 ⇒ 「DUMMY SUBJECT "there"」
(2) 「1 or 2 OBJECT Nominals; COMPLEMENT Nominal or
Ajectival」 ⇒ 「REAL SUBJECT Nominal」

(Page 13)

Thus, we get the following word oder for EIS:

// PREFACE Adverbial, / WH-Word or Phrase / QUES-
TIONING Auxiliary Verb / DUMMY SUBJECT "there" /
(mostly) Be Verb (Phrase) / REAL SUBJECT Nominal /
Adverbials (mostly locational).//

e.g.
There is a thermos on the table.
Are there some tea cups there?
No, there aren't any.
Where are (there) some (tea cups)?
There are some on the sink in the kitchen.

Once upon a time, there lived an old woodcutter alone
deep in Rokko Mountains.




 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 6

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(The Points Only)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー

THE TEXT

20. ORGANIC CLASIFICATION OF WORDS
into 13 PARTS OF SPEECH [abbr: PS]
(a tree diagram of which will have a
beautiful figure)
(Definitions and explanations omitted.)

I. ISOLATED
1) INTERJECTION (PS1)

II. INDEPENDENT
1) NOUN (including PRONOUN) (PS2)
2) VERB (PS3)

III. DEPENDENT
1) ADJECTIVE (including ARTICLE) (PS4)
2) ADVERB (PS5)
3) ADEGREE (PS6)
4) AUXILIARY (PS7)

IV. INTERMEDIARY
1) SUBORDINATORs
1.1) PREPOSITION [NOUN SUBORDINATOR] (PS8)
1.2) to, -ing, -en [VERB SUBORDINATOR
(:AUXILIARY CONNECTIVE)] (PS9)
1.3) SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION [SENTENCE
SUBORDINATOR] (PS10)
1.4) RELATIVE [IMPERFECT SENTENCE SUBORDI-
NATOR] (PS11)

(Page 14)

1.5) INTERROGATIVE [WH-words as IMPERFECT
SENTENCE SUBORDINATOR] (PS12)

2) COORDINATOR
2.1) COORDINATE CONJUNCTION (PS13)


21. SUBORDINATORs AS CHAGERs OF PARTs OF
SPEECH
(Illustrations omitted, because the followings will
easily be gathered from a traditional school English
grammar)

1) PREPOSITION: NOUN or NOMINAL into
ADJECTITIVAL or ADVERBIAL

2) to, -ing, -en [AUXILIARY CONNECTIVE]:
BARE VERB into NOMINAL or ADJECTITIVAL
or ADVERBIAL

3) SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION:
(DECLARATIVE) SENTENCE into NOMINAL or
ADVERBIAL

4) RELATIVE: IMPERFECT (DECLARATIVE)
SENTENCE into (NOMINAL or) ADJECTITIVAL
(or ADVERBIAL)

5) INTERROGATIVE [WH-WORD]: IMPERFECT
(DECLARATIVE) SENTENCE into NOMINAL


(Page 15)

22. IMPORTANT TECHNICAL TERMS AND CONCEPTS
of our REAL MODERN ENGLISH GRAMMAR

1) THE THREE KINDS OF VERB FORMS

Conceptually VERBs have 3 kinds of forms, i.e. THE
BARE, THE PRESENT and THE PAST, and no others.

e.g.
be (= BARE); is, am, are (= Present); was were
(= PAST)
have; has have; had
go; goes go; went
learn; learns learn; learned

But all the verbs except for "be" have two PRESENT
FORMS i.e. THE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR FORM
[~-(e)s] and THE OTHER FORM [~]
(Note: "~" shows THE BARE FORM of a verb or
the same form as that of THE BARE VERB)

e.g.
has (= THE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR PRESENT FORM),
have (= THE OTHER PRESENT FORM);
goes, go; learns, learn; cooks, cook; eats, eat;
washes, wash; etc.

Incidentally, what are called "VERBALS" in
traditional school English grammar
【i.e. "TO INFINITIVE" (e.g. to be, to learn),
"GERAND" (e.g. being, learning), "PRESENT
PARTICIPLE" (e.g. being, learning), and
"PAST PARTICIPLE" (e.g. been, learned)】, and
"AUXILIARY (VERB)" (e.g. can, will, is -ing, has -en)
should definitely not be VERBs nor should they be kinds
of VERBs.
If they were, they would break down the modern English
grammar fatally, and confuse serious students totally.

((Quiz 1: Prove scientifically that if they were verbs,
they would break down the modern English grammar
fatally. ⇒ To be answered later.))

(Page 16)

2) WHAT THE THREE KINDS OF VERB FORMS
EXPRESS

"THE PRESENT (FORM)" is factual and expresses a
REAL STATE or ACTION of A PRESENT TIME or in
THE FUTURE TIME.

"THE PAST (FORM)" is also factual and expresses
a REAL STATE or ACTION in THE PAST TIME.

"THE BARE (FORM)" expresses just a CONCEPTUAL
STATE or ACTION of ANY TIME (in the time line
extending from PAST through THE UTTERANCE
MOMENT into FUTURE)

"PRESENT" is usually not THE UTTERANCE MOMENT
but AN EXTENSION OF TIME (from a point in THE
PAST) THROUGH THE UTTERANCE MOMENT (to a
point in THE FUTURE)

(to be continued)





 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 7

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(The Points Only)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー

THE TEXT

3) THE FORMS OF THE TWO KINDS OF AUXILIARY
VERBS

SIMPLE AUXILIARY VERBs have only two kinds
of forms, i.e. THE PRESENT and THE PAST, but
COMPOUND AUXILIARY VERBs have three, i.e.
THE PRESENT, THE PAST and THE BARE.
(We think there is a good reason to why SIMPLE
AUXILIARY VERBs do not have BARE FORM, and
we will discuss this some other time.)

e.g.
can (= PRESENT); could (= PAST)
will; would
is -ing (= PRESENT); was -ing (= PAST);
be -ing (= BARE)
has -en; had -en; have -en

4) WHAT THE TWO KINDS OF SIMPLE AUXILIARY
VERBS EXPRESS

"THE PRESENT (FORM)" of SIMPLE AUXILIARY
VERBS expresses THE PRESENT REAL PERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY or SUBJECTIVE JUDGEMENT

(Page 17)

of a person concerned (i.e. "I", "you", "he", etc)
in a communication situation.
(Note: In the following examples "⇔" means the
necessity of comparison and seeing the difference.)

e.g.
He CAN cook better than his wife now.
(⇔ IS ABLE TO)
I WILL see my sister-in-law at the party tomorrow.
(⇔ AM GOING TO)
You MUST teach us English next Thursday morning,
too.
(⇔ HAVE TO)

"THE PAST (FORM)" of SIMPLE AUXILIARY
VERBS expresses THE PAST REAL PSYCHOLOGY
or THE PRESENT SUPPOSITIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
(⇒ advanced) of a person concerned.

e.g.
THE PAST REAL PSYCHOLOGY:
AIko asked me if she COULD see me at my office.
The weather person said it WOULD snow the next day.

THE PRESENT SUPPOSITIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (⇒
advanced):
I wish (that) I COULD meet your sister at the party
tomorrow. (= I am sorry that I CANNOT meet your
sister at the party tomorrow.)
If Ken WOULD join us on a hike, Yuri WOULD come,
too. (= Since Ken MILL NOT join us on a hike,
Yuri WILL NOT come, either. I am sorry.)

COULD you help me with my baggage? (⇒ CIRCUM-
LOCUTORY maybe from the CONDITIONAL: "If you
COULD help me with my baggage, I WOULD be very
happy (, though most probably you CANNOT).")

I WOULD like to play tennis with you this weekend
(if you WOULD, though most probably you DO NOT
want to).

(Page 18)

5) WHAT THE THREE KINDS OF COMPOUND AUXIL-
IARY VERBS EXPRESS

"THE PRESENT (FORM)" of COMPOUND AUXILIARY
VERBS expresses THE PRESENT FACTUAL or OBJEC-
TIVE JUDGEMENT of a person concerned

e.g.
He IS ABLE TO cook better than his wife now.
I AM GOING TO see my sister-in-law at the party
tomorrow.
You HAVE TO teach us English next Thursday morning,
too.
Miki HAS clean-ED (= -EN) the living room.
(⇒ PRESENT RESULTANT: The living room is clean
now because Miki cleaned it some time ago.)
She HAS BE-EN clean-ING her house for one hour now.
They HAVE TO BE ABLE TO swim by next summer.

"THE PAST (FORM)" of COMPOUND AUXILIARY
VERBS expresses THE PAST FACTUAL or OBJEC-
TIVE JUDGEMENT of a person concerned

e.g.
He WAS ABLE TO cook better than his wife then.
I WAS GOING TO see my sister-in-law at the party
the following day.
You HAD TO teach us English the next Thursday morn-
ing, too.

(The followoing is advanced.)
However, the compound auxiliary verb, "HAD -EN" ex-
presses two different kinds of TENSEs, i.e.
(1) PAST RESULTANT and
(2) GAND PAST (or "BEFORE PAST" if you prefer).
PAST RESULTANT (1) is one tense berore PRESENT
RESULTANT, but GRAND PAST (2) is one tense before
PAST, i.e. two tenses before PRESENT.
Therefore, "HAD ~-EN" is ambiguous between the two,
and very confusing for students.

(Page 19)

But we believe the difference is important because
it is qualitatively the same difference between PRES-
ENT RESULTANT and PAST which should definitely
not be confused.

e.g.
Miki HAD clean-ED the room when you phoned me.
(⇒ PAST RESULTANT predicate sentence meaning
"The room was clean when you phoned me because
Miki HAD clean-ED [= GAND PAST or BEFORE PAST]
it some time before.")
Miki HAD clean-ED the room about an hour before
they came. (⇒ GAND PAST or BEFORE PAST and
not PAST RESULTANT)

((Quiz 2: Prove scientifically why GRAND PAST takes
the form "HAD + bare VERB + -EN".⇒ answered later))


(to be continued)

-----------------------------




 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 8

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(The Points Only)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー

THE TEXT


"THE BARE (FORM)" of COMPOUND AUXILIARY
VERBS expresses THE CONCEPTUAL JUDGEMENT
of a person concerned.

e.g.
He will BE ABLE TO cook better than his wife then.
You may HAVE TO teach us English the following
Thursday morning, too.
I want to BE ABLE TO speak French by then.
They will HAVE TO BE ABLE TO swim by next summer.

((Quiz 3: Explain accurately why more than one SIMPLE
AUXILIARY VERBS cannot be used consecutively, e.g.
*"will can", *"may must", *"will must can" etc. ⇒
answered later))
(Note: * means "grammatically unacceptable".)

6) BARE "HAVE -EN" AS CONCEPUTUAL RESULTANT
FORM AND ONE-TENCE-BEFORE FORM

6.1) CONCEPUTUAL RESULTANT

e.g.
Ken may HAVE BOUGHT a car (by now).
Ken will HAVE BOUGHT a car on the tenth next month.
Aiko must HAVE CLEANED this room (by now).
( ⇒ This sentence (written) may be ambiguous, i.e.
between
(1) STRONG PROBABILITY: "Because it's clean now."
and
(2) (STRONG) INSISTENCE: "But it's not clean. So
I will definitely reduce her allowance [for example]."
⇔ "Aiko should HAVE CLEANED this room (by now).")

(6.2) ONE-TENCE-BEFORE

e.g.
Aiko must HAVE CLEANED the room last night.
Ken may HAVE BOUGHT a car on the tenth last month.

7) SUPPLEMENTARY SYNTAX

Even when the SKELETON [or TRUNK and BOUGHs]
of a sentence is given, the meaning is often felt
incomplete as a sentense both by the speaker and the
listener, when both of them feel some supplementary
words are necessary to make it complete.
For example, we will feel that the sentence "Emi COM-
PARED her college life." is incomplete in its meaning
until the answer for "WITH what (/ TO what)?" is given.

e.g.
Jane RELIED ← ON Ken (TO help her out))」.
Aiko COMPARED (her college life)← WITH her sister's.

And we call this kind of addition of words "SUPPLE-
MENTARY SYNTAX" or "SUPPLEMENTATION", and
the words added "SUPPLEMENT".

Incidentally, SUPPLEMENTARY SYNTAX usually forms
a COMMON USAGE with the preceding SUPPLEMENTED
WORD.

e.g.
RELY ON someone/something (FOR / TO DO something)
COMPARE something WITH / TO some other thing

WORDs we often feel necessary to supplement are not
just VERBs, but ADJECTIVEs, NOUNs and ADEGREEs
also.

e.g.
(She is) AFRAID ← OF dogs(.)
(That was) DIFFERENT ← FROM the sample(.)
(He has) money ENOUGH ← TO start a new business(.)
(She has) poor ABILITY ← TO organize her thinking(.)
We were SURPRISED ← AT the THE NEWS ← THAT her
team won (=< had won) the game.
(Note: "=<" here means " O.K. but more grammarti-
cally")
She is AS (old)← AS my sister.
He was TOO (sleepy)← TO understand the lecture.
I've found (that) this question is MORE (difficult)←
THAN that one.
The hole was SO (small) ← THAT the dog couldn't get
through it.

This is an end of
our REAL MODERN BASIC ENGLISHI GRAMMAR
in which some advanced items are included, though
its MORPHOLOGY is omitted because we think this
of TRADITIONAL SCHOOL ENGLISH GRAMMAR is
good enough.

Incidentally, almost all of the RULES of our
REAL MODERN 'ADVANCED' ENGLISH GRAMMAR
will be the kind which can be deduced from the very
basics of our REAL MODERN BASIC ENGLISH GRAM-
MAR, i.e. the definitions of each PART OF SPEECH
and some other GRAMMARTICAL TERMS (such as
BARE FORM, PRESENT, ONE TENSE BEFORE etc.)
and the MODERN ENGLISH WORD ORDER (or our
WOFES CHART).

Some exceptions of this are INVERSION, INSERTION,
ELLIPSIS and EMPHATIC STRUCTURE.

Our quizes in the text will be answered in the
following APPENDIX.

((Quiz 1: Prove scientifically that if "VERBALS"
【i.e. TO INFINITIVE, GERAND, PRESENT PARTICIPLE
and PAST PARTICIPLE】, and "AUXILIARY (VERB)"
were VERBs as in traditional school English grammars,
they would break down the modern English grammar
fatally.))
((Quiz 2: Prove scientifically why GRAND PAST takes
the form "HAD + bare VERB + -EN"))
((Quiz 3: Explain accurately why more than one SIMPLE
AUXILIARY VERBs cannot be used consecutively, e.g.
*"will can", *"may must", *"will must can" etc.))

(to be continued)



 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 9

"A BASIC
REAL MODEREN
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR LEARNERS"

in English

(APPENDIX)



ーーー
(notes)


(1) "A" in the title means that someone may develop a better
"(BASIC) REAL MODEREN ENGLISH GRAMMAR" at any time.

(2) "Learners" here means "learners of the English language."

ーーーーー

ANSWERs FOR the QUIZes

Quiz 1 (Intermediate): Prove scientifically that if
"AUXILIARY (VERB)" and what is called "VERBALS"
【i.e. TO INFINITIVE, GERAND, PRESENT PARTICIPLE
and PAST PARTICIPLE】, were VERBs as in traditional
school English grammars, they would break down the
modern English grammar fatally.

ANSWER for Quiz 1:
The next should be the LAW of the MODERN ENGLISH
GRAMMAR.

"A VERB is able to be the MAIN VERB i.e. the center
of a sentence."

Therefore, if AUXILIARIes were (kinds of) VERBs,
they should be able to be the MAIN VERBs of
SENTENCEs, and the followings should be accepted
as grammartically good SENTENCEs.

*Yoshiko CAN English.
*Jiro MUST a surgical doctor.

Incidentally, lines of words of this type were
accepted as good SENTENCEs in OLD ENGLISH.
Therefore, in OLD ENGLISH, it is all right to
regard AUXILIARY VERBs as (kinds of) VERBs, but
definitely not in MODERN ENGLISH.

Furthermore, if VERBALs were (kinds of) VERBs,
the followings should also be accepted as good
English SENTENCEs.

*Yoshiko TO GIVE an English speech.
*Jiro in (a) white (gown) GONE into the operating
room.

However, these are not acceptable as good English
SENTENCEs, though they will be accepted as good
NOUN PHRASEs.

Therefore, if we should accept the above as good
MODERN ENGLISH SENTENCEs, MODERN ENGLISH
GRAMMAR would fatally be broken down and make
good students of it fall into great confusion.


Quiz 2 (Advanced): Prove scientifically why GRAND
PAST takes the form "HAD + bare VERB + -EN"

ANSWER for Quiz 2:

DEFINITIONS and AXIOMS:
(1) THE PAST (OF A VERB)
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE VERB
e.g. "went = did go"

(2) THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE "have" =
"had"

(3) THE ONE TENSE BEFORE (OF A BARE VERB) =
THE BARE "have" + THE BARE VERB + "-en"
See : She must "have gone" to Paris yesterday.

PROOF:
THE GRAND PAST (OF A VERB)
= THE PAST (OF A VERB) x ONE TENSE BEFORE
<from the definition>
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE VERB x
ONE TENSE BEFORE <from (1)>
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE "have" +
THE BARE VERB + "-en" <from (3)>
= "had" + THE BARE VERB + "-en" <from (2)>
(The End)
(Note: In the above proof, "A x B" means
"B of A".)

e.g.1
THE GRAND PAST OF "go"
= THE PAST "went" x ONE TENSE BEFORE
<from the definition>
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE "go" x
ONE TENSE BEFORE <from (1)>
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE "have" +
THE BARE "go" + "-en" <from (3)>
= "had" + THE BARE "go" + "-en" <from (2)>
= "had + gone"
(The End)

e.g.2
THE GRAND PAST OF "wash"
= THE PAST "washed" x ONE TENSE BEFORE
<from the definition>
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE "wash" x
ONE TENSE BEFORE <from (1)>
= THE AUXILIARY "did" + THE BARE "have" +
THE BARE "wash" + "-en" <from (3)>
= "had" + THE BARE "wash" + "-en" <from (2)>
= "had + washed"
(The End)


Quiz 3 (Basic): Explain accurately why more than one
SIMPLE AUXILIARY VERBs cannot be used consecu-
tively, like *"will can", *"may must", *"will must can"
etc.

ANSWER for Quiz 3:
Because SIMPLE AUXILIARY VERBs do NOT have BARE
FORM while AUXILIARY VERBs can only be added to
(or used for) BARE FORM (VERBs).

Incidentally, COMPOUND AUXILIARY VERBs have
BARE FORMs (e.g. BE to; BE able to; BE -ing; BE -en;
BE going to; HAVE -en), so to the BARE MAIN VERB
of a sentence, we can not only add one SIMPLE
AUXILIARY VERB but one or two COMPOUND
AUXILIARY VERBs also.

e.g.
We x will >→ *can (= the *PRESENT form) >→ meet
(= the BARE main verb) x him.
We x will >→ be able to (= the BARE form) >→ meet
(= the BARE) x him.

You x may >→ *must (= the *PRESENT) >→ give
(= the BARE) x a speech.
You x may >→ have to (= the BARE) >→ give (= the
BARE) x a speech.

She x will >→ *must (= the *PRESENT) >→ *can
(= the *PRESENT) >→ swim (= the BARE) ← well.
She x will >→ have to (= the BARE) >→ be able to
(= the BARE) >→ swim (= the BARE) ← well.

(The following comment is advanced.)
This is probably because what is expressed by one
simple sentence should include (or based upon) only
one FACTUAL judgement which is grammatically or
rather in terms of human communication the most
important and expressed first by the PRESENT or
the PAST of a VERB or an AUXILIARY (VERB), and
all the other following verbal judgements that
are dependent upon the first in the sentence
should be CONCEPTUAL, which are expressed by
the BAREs of VERBs.

e.g.
You x may (= FACTUAL) >→ have to (= CONCEPTUAL)
>→ give (= CONCEPTUAL) x a speech.

She x will (= FACTUAL) >→ have to (= CONCEPTUAL)
>→ be able to (= CONCEPTUAL) >→ swim (= CONCEP-
TUAL) ← well.


---the end of a real modern basic English grammar---




 

Toward A Real Modern English Grammar 10

To whom this may interestーPage 1ーFebruary 1, 2012



February 1, 2012

To whom this may interest,


Toward
A Real Modern English Grammar


For The Benefit Of English Learners
As A Foreign Language
All Over The World



-------------------

The grammer of the English language has changed
completely from the old through the middle to the
the modern.
The change seems revolutionary to us like that
of the bodily mechanism of a caterpillar through
that of the chrysalis into that of a beautiful
butterfly.

But even so, school grammars of English have
never gone through any fundamental reforma-
tions successfully ever since.
As the result, serious students of English all
over the world are forced to apply the old
English grammar to the modern or present-day
English confusing themselves significantlly.

The activities of a butterfly will never be ex-
plained or realized with the bodily mechanism
of a caterpillar.

Besides, the English language is Germanic.
It does not come from Latin.
But even so, all the prevailing school grammars
of English are forced applications of Latin
grammar to the modern and present-day English
language, we hear.



To whom this may interestーPage 2ーFebruary 1, 201


In conclusion, we would be very happy if you would
collaborete with us in organizing scientifically*,
a better "Real Modern English Grammar" than the
following, and also in publishing it worldwide to
help students of the English language all over
the world.

(*rationally and empirically starting with obser-
vations of the present day English)

------------------


------------------

Very truly yours,



Kiyoshi Hirano

President
Hu-com Inter English School
2-3-19-313, Shibata
Kita-ku, Osaka City
530-0012, Japan

(Phone & Fax: 06-6372-9722
HP: http://www.hucom-inter.jp
E-mail address: info@hucom-inter.jp)



------------------

A brief introduction of the auther,
Kiyoshi Hirano:
M.A. from Michigan State University
(Major: Inter-cultural communication)
B.A. from Osaka City University
(Major: English)
Publications are as follows,
"Jitsuyo Seisei Eibunpo [Practical Generative English Grammar]"
Kaibunsha, 1986;
"Eikaiwa Kakumei [A Revolution Of 'English Conversation' I]"
Taishukan, 1996;

"Zoku Eikaiwa Kakumei [A Revolution Of 'English Conversation' II]"
Taishukan, 1997
etc.








 

書籍・ブログ「誰でもすぐできる:バイリンガル脳で英会話」の広報として

書籍・ブログ
「誰でもすぐできる:バイリンガル脳で英会話」
の広報としまして

 

 

「誰でもすぐできる:

バイリンガル脳で英会話」

 

 

このたび、私どものヒューコム・インター英会話学院は上記題名の
ブログを、この3月中旬に大阪の「せせらぎ出版」という出版社から、
書物として出すことになりました。

題名や構成などは多少変わりますが、内容は大体同じです。

私達はすでに、英語を外国語として習い始めた何人もの日本人の方
々に短期間で英日のバイリンガルに成って、私達の英語・英会話コ
ースを終えて頂いています。

以上のことに少しでもご興味のあられる方は、私達の『ヒューコム・
ブログ』を覗くか、3月中旬に本屋さんでその本を手にとってご覧に
なるかして頂ければ幸いです。

 

2016年1月10日

               平野 清

               ヒューコム・インター英会話学院

 

 

 

 

「英語の神様」平野清先生について

私は現在東京において翻訳会社(http://www.s777come.server-shared.com/)を経営している川田と申します。

1970年代後半のことですが、当時平野先生は、大阪は梅田のサンケイビルの1室で毎週日曜日に (通訳を通した) 英語の勉強会を主催していらっしゃり、私はこれに参加させていただいておりました。この無料の勉強会への参加者は社会人が多かったのですが、私は、関西地方のある大学に在籍する学生でした。

それから10年後、私自身が英語を教える仕事を始め、教える仕事には準備、テストの作成、添削など、大変な裏の作業があることが初めて分かり、先生が無欲で寛大であられることを改めて認識した次第です。

このため、20年以上も前から平野先生には報恩したく、先生の所在を突き止めようとしていましたが、そうできたのは数年後にインターネットの使用を開始し、知人のプログラマーの協力をえて、やっと先生の経営されるヒューコム・インターのホームページにたどり着けた時でした。

今ではアメリカの大学院を卒業した人はたくさんいますが、そのような方が少ない時代に、それを鼻にかけるわけでもなく、威張るわけでもなく、当時から私は平野先生のことをなんと寛大な方かと思い、先生のことを「英語の神様」と呼んでおりました。この勉強会以外にも年末にはご自宅での忘年会に招待していただいたり、ディベートを見学に行った後、ご自宅で夕食をいただいたりしたことも嬉しい記憶として残っています。

週休2日が定着していないこの時代の貴重な日曜に、当時新婚であられた先生はきっとご家庭でくつろぎたかった違いありません。今から考えると交通費だけでもお支払いすべきだったのですが、私たちは、なんと厚かましいことをしていたのかということが分かり汗顔の至りです。

安易に英語や英会話学校が乱立し、安易な教授法でそれらを教えられる今日においても、先生は英語や英会話の正しいあり方を研究し、その正しい教授法を開発し、それらで持って人々をを正しく導いて行くことを生涯のミッションとしておられます。

以上のような訳で、一人でも多くの方が、平野先生が開発されたヒューコム・アプローチによる、先生自らの英語・英会話の授業を一度は受けて見られることをここに心底からお勧めいたします。

 

川田純枝

1959年生まれ

1981年関西外国語大学外国語学部英米語科卒業

1979年より1980年まで同校交換留学生としてウィスコンシン大学へ留学

1984年より1985年までシカゴ大学大学院へ留学

 

これ以降の経歴は弊ホームページをご参照ください。

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